Maddah letters (حُرُوف مدة)
These are: alif (ا), yāʼ(ي) or wāw(و)
- If there is fathah before alif letter then it is called alif-maddah
- If there is dammah before wāw sakin then it is called as wāw-maddah
- If there is kasrah before yā then it is called yā-maddah.
In all of the above cases, these letters are pronounced as one alif. e.g.
بَا vs بَ
بِى vs بِ
بُوْا vs بُ
The above just some basic concepts of tajweed and as you can see that these are not difficult to understand. With some practice these are easily memorized.