Shamsīyah شمسية & Qamarīyah قمرية letters
The Arabic word for the English word “the” is “al” (ال) (i.e. the letter alif (ا) followed by lām (ل). The ل in ال is pronounced if the letter after it is “qamarīyah” (“lunar”), but if the letter after it is “shamsīyah” (“solar”), the lām (ل) after it becomes part of the following letter (is joined). e.g.
The list of shamsīyah letters are:
س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن ت ث د ذ ر ز
The list of qamarīyah letters are:
ء ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق ك م ه و ي
أَلْشَمْس is read as ash-shams and not al-shams – the ل in أَلْشَمْس is NOT pronounced
أَلْقَمرْ is read as al-qamar and not aqmar – the ل in أَلْقَمرْ is pronounced